Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best or the most appropriate answer in each case.

  1. If an epithelium is composed of many layers with only the deepest of the cells is said to be:
  1. cuboidal
  2. columnar
  3. squamous
  4. pyramidal
  1. The mode of secretion of a gland where a bit of the secretory cell pinches off with the secretion is known as:
  1. apocrine
  2. holocrine
  3. merocrine
  4. endocrine
  1. Which one of the following is not found in both the bone and cartilage?
  1. lacunae
  2. collagen fibers
  3. matrix
  4. canaliculi
  1. The structures that contract to cause "goose pimples" is the:
  1. dermal papillae
  2. roots
  3. hair blooicle
  4. arrector pili
  1. A burn where there is damage to both the epidermis and dermis so that they can only regenerate from the edges of the wound would be classified as a _________ burn.
  1. first degree
  2. second degree
  3. third degree
  4. cannot be accurately determined
  1. The product of ceruminous gland is
  1. sweat
  2. wax
  3. sebum
  4. oil
  1. The most abundant kind of organism on the skin are the:
  1. bacteria
  2. fungi
  3. protozoa
  4. virus
  1. Which one of the following bones is not formed by intermembraous ossification?
  1. parietal
  2. rib
  3. sternum
  4. all of the above are formed by intermembranous ossification
  1. A fracture where the broken ends of the bone of not penetrate the skin is known as a ___________ fracture.
  1. impacted
  2. depressed
  3. comminuted
  4. simple
  1. If excessive growth hormone is secreted after the epiphyseal cartilages have been replaced by bone, a condition known as _____________ may result.
  1. pituitary giant
  2. acromegaly
  3. achrondroplasia
  4. pituitary dwarf
  1. In women the amount of calcium in the bones steadily decreases after ______________ years of age.
  1. 35
  2. 40
  3. 45
  4. 50
  1. Which one of the following listed occurs thirdly in endochondral ossification?
  1. primary ossification
  2. perichondrium
  3. peristeum
  4. epiphyseal plate formation
  1. Cells which reabsorb previously deposited bone are known as _________ and are stimulated by ________.
  1. osteoprogenitor cells, calcitonin
  2. osteoclasts, parathormome
  3. osteocytes, growth hormone
  4. none of the above is correct
  1. Increases in bone length is due to changes in the:
  1. epiphyseal line
  2. epiphyseal plate
  3. perichondrium
  4. periosteum
  1. Which one of the following substances is not necessary for production of new bone tissue?
  1. vitamin C
  2. calcium
  3. phosporus
  4. calicitonin
  5. all of the above are necessary
  1. A rouned prominence that articulates with another is a:
  1. fossa
  2. condyle
  3. tubercle
  4. tuberosity
  1. Which structures contains all the others?
  1. canaliculi
  2. lacuna
  3. osteon
  4. lamella
  1. The compressional strength of bone is due to:
  1. elastic fibers
  2. collagen fibers
  3. salts of calcium and phosphate
  4. non of the above
  1. The condition in adults where the rate of bone absorption remains normal but there is a gradual reduction in the rate of bone formation is known as _____________.
  1. osteoporosis
  2. rickets
  3. osteomalacia
  4. osteomalacia
  1. Cells which form new deposits of bone are known as ___________ and are stimulated by _____________.
  1. Osteoblasts, calcintinon
  2. osteoclasts, parathormone
  3. osteoblasts, parathormone
  4. osteoclasts, calintinon
  1. Increase in the thickness of a long bone is due to changes in the:
  1. epiphyseal plate
  2. epiphyseal line
  3. peristeum
  4. perichondrium
  1. Which one of the following listed is NOT part of the organic material in bone?
  1. collagen fibers
  2. chondrotin
  3. glycoproteins
  4. hydroxyzpatite
  1. Which one of the following is not true of synarthroses?
  1. they permit no true movement even though they may give alittle
  2. the bones in such a joint are held together by fibrous connective tissue
  3. a suture is a specific example of such a joint
  4. a synchondrosis is an example of such a joint
  1. Ligaments join:
  1. bone to bone
  2. muscle to bone
  3. periosteum to bone
  4. muscle to periosteum
  1. Twisting or overstrecthing a joint causing ligaments to tear will result in a disorder known as:
  1. dislocation
  2. brusitis
  3. sprain
  4. gout
  1. Which one of the following is NOT a distinguishing feature of ALL synovial joints?
  1. articular
  2. synovial membrane
  3. synovial fluid
  4. articular disks
  1. Tendons join:
  1. bone to bone
  2. muscle to bone
  3. periosteum to bone
  4. none of the above
  1. Bursae:
  1. wrap around tendons
  2. usually are located between the bone and the skin
  3. usually are located between the tendon and the bone
  4. do not contain a synovial membrane
  1. Two conditions that affect women more than men are:
  1. gout and degreneration of the intervertebral disks
  2. rheumatiod arthritis and oteoarthritis
  3. Heberdenís nodes and rhematoid arthritis
  4. Osteoarthitis and gout
  1. Adipose tissue is most easily recognized by:
  1. the number of fibroblasts
  2. the presence of reticular fibers
  3. the presence of elastic fibers
  4. the number of collagen fibers
  5. the presence of signet ring cells
  1. Cancellous bone is characterized by:
  1. osteons
  2. Haversian canals
  3. trabeculae
  4. both a and b
  5. both b and c
  1. Cells responsible for dissolving bone are:
  1. chondroblasts
  2. chondrocytes
  3. osteoblasts
  4. osteocytes
  5. osteoclasts
  1. The integumentary system consists of:
  1. the epidermis
  2. the dermis
  3. hair and nails
  4. sweat and sebaceous glands
  5. all of the above
  1. Sunburn is caused by:
  1. defective melanocytes
  2. absence of a gene that inhibits
  3. ultraviolet rays damaging epidermis
  4. stimulation of melanin production
  5. stimulation of keratin production
  1. The main mechanism in the skin for getting rid of excessive heat is:
  1. sweating
  2. radiation of heat
  3. goose flesh
  4. heat convection
  5. blood vessel constriction
  1. The skeletal system consists of:
  1. bones and joints
  2. tendons and ligaments
  3. cartilage
  4. both a and b
  5. both a and c
  1. Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
  1. support
  2. provides a mineral reservoir
  3. responds to neutra stimuli
  4. makes blood cells
  5. protection
  1. From the early 20s to about age 40:
  1. more bone is deposited than is destroyed
  2. bone deposition and destruction are approximately equal
  3. more bone is destroyed than is deposited
  4. matrix is destroyed faster than minerals
  5. minerals are removed faster than matrix
  1. Red bone marrow:
  1. is found in all adult bones
  2. produces blood cells
  3. is located near the periosteum
  4. functions best at low body temperatures
  5. provides a storage deposit for calcium
  1. A common type of fracture in children is:
  1. a compound fracture
  2. a complete fracture
  3. a greenstick fracture
  4. a comminuted fracture
  5. all are equally common
  1. In a closed reduction of a fracture:
  1. the bone ends are manipulated into position without an incision
  2. surgical procedures are used to manipulated bone ends
  3. a rod is inserted into the bone
  4. a plate is attached to the surface of the bone
  5. the fracture is closed with an adhesive
  1. Immovable or slightly movable fibrous joints lacking a joint cavity are called:
  1. synarthrosis
  2. symphses
  3. synchondroses
  4. diarthroses
  5. ampiarthroses
  1. The most freely movable of all joints are:
  1. gliding joints
  2. ball-and Ėsocket joints
  3. pivot joints
  4. hinge joints
  5. saddle joints
  1. Which of the following movements do not occur at the hip and shoulder joints?
  1. protraction-retraction
  2. abduction-adduction
  3. flexion-extension
  4. circumduction
  5. rotation
  1. Which of the following joints allows movement in only one plane?
  1. gliding
  2. hinge
  3. pivot
  4. ellipsoid
  5. saddle
  1. Indicate the truth or falsehood of these two statements.
  1. Bone formation is a continous process and does not end upon ossification of developing bone.
  2. New bone is laid down and old bone is resorted throughout the life of an individual.
  1. Both statements are true.
  2. Statement 1 is true; statement 2 is false.
  3. Statement 1 is false: statement 2 is true.
  4. Both statements are false.
  1. The addition of haversain systems provides for an increase in bone _______ which results from the addition of bone through ________ activity.
  1. diameter, osteoclast
  2. diameter, osteoblast
  3. length, osteoclast
  4. length, osteoblast
  1. During endochondra 1 bone formation, __________ form a minature model of the Bone out of a hyaline cartilage. Around the diaphyses of the cartilage model, the periosteum gives rise to __________ which secretes osteoid, the organic component of bone.
  1. chondroblasts, osteoblasts
  2. chondroblasts, osteocytes
  3. chondrocytes, osteoblasts
  4. chondrocytes, osteocytes
  1. As more cartilage matures, the area of breakdown progesses toward the _____ fo the model, and the advacing osteoblasts _______ the trabecular area.
  1. ends, increase
  2. ends, decrease
  3. middle, increase
  4. middle, decrease
  1. The primary center of ossification in the diaphyses and the secondary centers of ossification in the epiphysis remain separated by the epiphyseal ________. This layer of cartilage continues to divide which increases the _______ of the bone.
  1. line, daimeter
  2. line, length
  3. disc, diameter
  4. disc, length
  1. Bone is reshaped by the action of _________.
  1. osteoblasts
  2. osteoclasts
  3. osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  4. neither osteoblasts nor osteoclasts
  1. In the immediate vicinity of a bone fracture, a ________ forms first followed shortly by rapid division of cells from the inner layers of the ___________.
  1. blood clot, periosteum
  2. blood clot, endosteum
  3. fibrous, cartiaginous
  4. fibrous, fibrous
  1. X-shaped ligament of the knee are the:
  1. meniscus
  2. lateral collateral
  3. medial collateral
  4. bursea
  5. cruciate
  1. Endochondral ossification is the method of bone formation for:
  1. long bones
  2. bones of the skull
  3. the vertebrea
  4. all bones except facila and cranial bones
  5. bones of the appendicular skelton only
  1. The epiphseal plate:
  1. consists of dense irregular tissue
  2. is present only during the fetal stage
  3. permits growth in length of a long bone
  4. is present in flat bone, but not in long bone
  5. is the same as the primary ossification center
  1. Osteoclasts are cells having the function of:
  1. bone reabsorbtion
  2. deposition of calcium salts
  3. growth in diameter of the bone
  4. growth in length of the bone
  5. healing of injured bone
  1. Microscopic channels which allow communication between osteocytes are;
  1. lacunea
  2. Volkmannís canal
  3. Haversian canals
  4. marrow spaces
  5. canaliculi
  1. In a long bone, most of the compact bone is found in the:
  1. head
  2. shaft
  3. epiphyses
  4. marrow
  5. epiphyseal plate
  1. Small holes in the matrix of bone is which osteocytes are found are:
  1. lacunea
  2. lamella
  3. canaliculi
  4. osteoblasts
  5. osteoclasts
  1. In the process of healing of an injured bone:
  1. the hematoma is the final stage of healing
  2. the callus is a massive colt of blood at the injury site
  3. fibroblasts play am important role in healing
  4. the periostuem has no important function