FINAL EXAM Human Anatomy and Physiology 2401

Lecture Test IV

General Functions of the Nervous System

Neurons, Synapses, and Receptors;

Organization of The Nervous System, and

some basic features and The Special

Senses, The Eye, The Ear and Equilibrium,

Smell (olfaction), Taste (gustation) and

Somatosensory receptors

Directions: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best of the most appropriate answer in each case.

  1. Which one of the following general functions is not a general function of the nervous system?

  1. controls and coordinates all parts of the body (each structure of the body communicates directly with the brain)
  2. receives stimuli from the bodyís interior and from external environments, through the motor system
  3. largely determines the bodyís responses to these impulse-messages, through the motor system
  4. brain activities of the sort that are responsible for emotions are generally unable to influence hormonally controlled events
  5. contains the human higher functions, e.g., memory, reasoning.

  1. The Nervous System is usually divided in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system, but a further division of the nervous system also includes the:

  1. brain and spinal cord
  2. parasympathetic (craniosacral)
  3. sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
  4. afferent fibers and afferent fibers
  5. autonomic nervous system (ANS)

  1. The function of cholinesterase is to:

  1. prevent continuos stimulation by acetylcholine
  2. bind acetylcholine to receptors
  3. liberate choline for reuse
  4. block receptors and prevent stimulation
  5. release acetate for energy

  1. The molecule released by the end of the motor neuron at the myoneural junction is know as:

  1. ATP
  2. calcium ions
  3. acetylcholine
  4. glucose

  1. The structure that responds to a change in the external environment is a/an:

  1. effector
  2. sensoty nerve cell
  3. receptor
  4. motor nerve cell

  1. The embryonic tissue that gives rise to the nervous system is called:

  1. mesoderm
  2. endoderm
  3. pachyderm
  4. ectoderm

  1. The cells which form a segmented covering around the processes of many of the neurons in the PNS are called:

  1. nerve cells
  2. glial cells
  3. Schwann cells
  4. ependymal cells

  1. Nissl bodies are:

  1. motochondria
  2. Golgi apparatus
  3. rough endoplasmic
  4. microtubules

  1. A bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system is called a:

  1. beuron
  2. ganglion
  3. nerve or neuron
  4. tract

  1. A mixed nerve is:

  1. one that goes to both the skin surface and to the viscera
  2. one that has its pathway mixed with other nerves
  3. one that carries both sensory and motor fibers
  4. one that carries large and small motor fibers

  1. Which one of the following is not true of dentrites?

  1. they are the receptive portion of a nerve cell
  2. they tend to be unbranched
  3. they are the part of the neuron where the nerve impulse originates
  4. they often attach directly to the cell body

  1. A cluster of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system is known as a:

  1. nerve
  2. center
  3. ganglion
  4. nucleus

  1. The positive charge on the surface of an unstimulated neuron is primarily due to the accumulation of which one of the following ions?

  1. potassium
  2. sodium
  3. calcium
  4. magnesium
  5. chlorine

  1. If a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron, the cell may reach "threshold" and trigger which one of the following potentials?

  1. generator
  2. local
  3. action
  4. IPSP

  1. When a neuron reaches threshold and an action potential is generated:

  1. potassium ions rapidly center the cell
  2. permeability to both potassium and sodium decreases dramatically
  3. sodium ions rapidly enter the cell
  4. sodium ions rapidly leave the cell

  1. Which one of the following is true?

  1. action potentials are an all or none phenomenon
  2. large diameter axons conduct action potentials at a slower rate than smaller diameter axons
  3. the action potentials in unmyelinated axons show saltatory conduction
  4. a nerve impulse is a graded

  1. The release of a chemical neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at a neuromuscular junction from the axon terminal, can cause a local depolarization on the muscle cell membrane called:

  1. generator potential
  2. local potential
  3. end plate potential
  4. IPSP

  1. Which one of the following is true of the concentrations of ions inside and outside of an unstimulated neuron?

  1. more potassium outside than inside
  2. more sodium inside than outside
  3. more chlorine outside than inside
  4. none of the above is correct

  1. The membrane potential of an unstimulated neuron is maintained by:

  1. concentration gradients
  2. electrical forces
  3. active transport
  4. passive forces

  1. A greater than threshold stimulus delivered to a neuron produces an action potential of ________ magnitude than a threshold stimulus.

  1. greater
  2. lesser
  3. the same

  1. Which one of the events listed below occurs fourthly in the formation of a nerve impulse?

  1. the inside of the cell becomes positively charged
  2. the potassium channels open
  3. sodium ions leave the cell
  4. the sodium channels open
  5. the sodium-potassium pump becomes activated

    Which one of the following nerve fibers would conduct nerve impulses most rapidly?

    1. large diameter, unmyelinated
    2. large diameter, myelinated
    3. small diameter, unmyelinated
    4. small diameter, myelinated

    1. Which one of the following statements about an axon is correct?

    1. some nerve impulses traveling along a given axon travel faster than others
    2. nerve fibers do not fatigue very easily
    3. the strength of a nerve impulse varies from one end of an axon to the other
    4. nerve impulse pass from one internodal area to the next

    1. A common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is:

    1. serotonin
    2. substance P
    3. glumatic acid
    4. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    5. enkephalins

    1. Transmission at neuromuscular junctions and transmission at synapses are alike in that both:

    1. are characterized by two-way conduction
    2. rely on the release of sodium ions to stimulate the cell across the "gap"
    3. are not similar to any great extent
    4. use electrical impulses rather than a chemical to "bridge" the gap
    5. result in a change in the potential of the membrane across the "gap"

    1. Arrange the following list in sequence and pick as your answer the third one.

    1. response
    2. receptor
    3. effector
    4. stimulus
    5. CNS

    1. The term motor unit applies to:

    1. connective tissue coverings around a muscle
    2. the union of a muscle tendon with the periosteum of bone
    3. a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates
    4. the triad in a skeletal muscle fiber

    Excitation and Transmission of a Nerve Impulse-(The Action Potential)

    Excitation of nerve and muscle produces a localized change in the structure of the cell membrane. The resulting wave of depolarization moves over the length of the fiber without a decrease in its intensity. Neuromuscular and synaptic transmission requires the release of transmitter substances.

    1. The accompanying illustration represents a recording of an action potential for nerve tissue. The _______ deflection, indicated by letter_______, represents the amplitude of the voltage changes in the tissue.

    1. vertical, X
    2. vertical, Y
    3. horizontal, X
    4. horizontal, Y

    1. The electrical and chemical gradients associated with nerve tissue______ muscle tissue, favor the movement of ________ into the cells.

    1. like, sodium
    2. like, potassium
    3. unlike, sodium
    4. unlike, potassium

    1. The immediate effect of neuronal stimulation is an increase in membrane permeability to _______ ions, allowing them to diffuse______ and causing depolarization.

    1. sodium, inward
    2. sodium, outward
    3. potassium, inward
    4. potassium, outward

    1. The restoration of the resting potential or internal negativity of a nerve fiber is associated most closely with the diffusion of ________ the fiber.

    1. sodium into
    2. sodium out of
    3. potassium into
    4. potassium out of

    1. Action potentials obey the all-or-none law. The observed action potential for a particular nerve fiber,______ a particular muscle fiber, represents a maximum response. Action potentials of any nerve or muscle fiber______ change in amplitude when observed under constant conditions.

    1. like, do
    2. like, do not
    3. unlike, do
    4. unlike, do not

    1. A weak stimulus must be of longer duration than a strong stimulus to produce a threshold stimulus for muscle or nerve. The graphic relationship between strength and duration of electrical stimulation is best characterized by the threshold curve illustrated by graph __________.
    2. The absolute refractory period extends from the beginning of the spike of the action potential through the __________ part of depolarization during which time the threshold is ______ and the excitability is zero.

    1. first, low
    2. first, high
    3. last, low
    4. last, high

    1. The duration of the refractory period determines the ________ limit for the frequency of impulse conduction. The ________ the refractory period, the lower the frequency of impulse conduction in a nerve fiber.

    1. upper, shorter
    2. upper, longer
    3. lower, shorter
    4. lower, longer

    1. The formation of an action potential involves first _________ in one segment of a nerve fiber. The segment of a nerve fiber undergoing depolarization is relatively ______ on the outside.

    1. depolarization, positive
    2. depolarization, negative
    3. repolarization, positive
    4. repolarization, negative

    1. At the point of depolarization there is an inward movement of charged particles (sodium ions) across the membrane. This movement occurs down the concentration gradient of the charged particles. On the outer surface of the membrane between the point of gradient ______the point of depolarization. On the inner surface of the membrane between the point of depolarization and adjacent areas, charged particles (ions) move down their concentration gradient _______ the point of depolarization.

    1. toward, toward
    2. toward, away from
    3. away from, toward
    4. away from, away from

    1. In myelinated nerve fibers, the myelin sheath _________ the magnitude of the ion shifts and _______ the conduction velocity.

    1. decreases, decreases
    2. decreases, increases
    3. increases, decreases
    4. increases, increases

    1. In general, smaller diameter nerve fibers conduct ________ rapidly and have a _______ refractory period than larger diameter nerve fibers.

    1. more, longer
    2. more, shorter
    3. less, longer
    4. less, shorter

    1. Most synapses in the body are located in the ________ nervous system and are typically found between the _______ of one neuron and the cell body and/or dendrite of another neuron.

    1. central, dendrite
    2. central, axon
    3. peripheral, dendrite
    4. peripheral, axon

    1. For synapses located outside the central nervous system, tiny vesicles associated with the ________ membrane ________ acetycholine, a substance involved with synaptic transmission.

    1. presynaptic, secrete
    2. presynaptic, do not secrete
    3. postsynaptic, secrete
    4. postsynaptic, do not secrete

    1. The neurotransmitter substances secreted at synaptic junctions causes a local increase in permeability of the __________ membrane to sodium ions. The movement of sodium ions across the postsynaptic membrane results in a local depolarization and the formation of an excitatory_________ potential (EPSP).

    1. presynaptic, presynaptic
    2. presynaptic, postsynaptic
    3. postsynaptic, presynaptic
    4. postsynaptic, postsynaptic

    1. The _________ of a postsynaptic membrane by stimulaneous excitation of a number of presynaptic terminals occurs by a process called__________ summation

    1. hypopolarization, spatial
    2. hypopolarization, temporal
    3. hyperpolarization, spatial
    4. hyperpolarization, temporal

    1. A subthreshold stimulus does not result in a nerve impulse and _____________ the excitability of the neuron to a stimulus of the same strength. A second subthreshold stimulus __________ become a threshold stimulus in a previously excited neuron.

    1. increases, can
    2. increases, cannot
    3. decreases, can
    4. decreases, cannot

    1. Indicate the truth or falsehood of these two statements by selecting one choice below.

    1.All presynapitc endings cause the development of an excitatory postsynaptic potential.

    2.All presynaptic endings release the same transmitter substance.

      1. Both statements are true.
      2. Statement 1 is true; statement 2 is false.
      3. Statement 1 is false; statement 2 is true.
      4. Both statements are false.

    1. A stimulus applied to a receptor causes __________ of a neuron ending and produces a/an ________ potential.

    1. hyperpolarization, generator
    2. hyperpolarization, end-plate
    3. depolarization, generator
    4. depolarization, end-plate

    Cells of the Nervous System

    The neuron is an excitable call and is the primary unit of the nervous system. Neurons sense change in the internal and external environments and initiates motor responses. The central nervous system integrates all incoming sensory and outgoing motor information. Homeostasis is maintained through the coordination of this communication network.

    1. The brain and spinal cord belong to the __________ nervous system and the cranial and spinal nerves belong to the _______ nervous system.

    1. central, central
    2. central, peripheral
    3. peripheral, central
    4. peripheral, peripheral

    1. A spinal nerve that supplies a skeletal muscle of the lower extremity is part of the ________ nervous system, and a cranial nerve that supplies a voluntary muscle of the eye is part of the _________ nervous system.

    1. somatic, somatic
    2. somatic, automatic
    3. automatic, somatic
    4. automatic, automatic

    1. Individual nerve fibers are enclosed by _________ while groups of nerve fiber are surrounded by _____________.

    1. epineurium, mesoneurium
    2. epineurium, perineurium
    3. endoneurium, mesoneurium
    4. endoneurium, perineurium

    1. A motorneuron consists of a cell body and its processes which include a single relatively long __________ and many relatively short _____________.

    1. axon, dendrites
    2. axon, peripheral processes
    3. central process, dendrites
    4. central process, peripheral processes

    1. The central process of a sensory neuron carries impulses ________ its cell body, and the axon of a motorneuron carries impulses __________its cell body.

    1. toward, toward
    2. toward, away from
    3. away from, toward
    4. away from, away from

    1. The cell bodies of sensory neurons lie _________ the central nervous system, and the cell bodies of motorneurons lie ____________ the central nervous system.

    1. outside, outside
    2. outside, inside
    3. inside, outside
    4. inside, inside

    1. The axon of an interneuron, _______ the axon (central process) of a sensory neuron, ends in tiny knobs called _________ .

    1. like, receptors
    2. like, presynaptic terminals
    3. unlike, receptors
    4. unlike, presynaptic terminals

    1. The end-feet of the central process or axon of a sensory neuron terminate on the surface of ________ , and the peripheral process or axon of a motorneuron terminates on the surface of _____.

    1. dendrites of other nerve cells, dendrites of other nerve cells
    2. dendrites of other nerve cells, muscle cells
    3. muscle cells, dendrites of other nerve cells
    4. muscle cells, muscle cells

    1. Receptors are located at the ______ end of _______ neurons.

    1. central, motor
    2. central, sensory
    3. peripheral, motor
    4. peripheral, sensory

    1. Indicate the truth or falsehood of these two statements by selecting one choice below.

    1. Junctions between nerve cells are represented by nodes of Ranvier.
    2. The myelin sheath is made up of many layers of Schewann cell membrane.

    1. Both statements are true.
    2. Statement 1 is true; statement 2 is false.
    3. Statement 1 is false; statement 2 is true.
    4. Both statements are false.

    1. Following injury to a nerve cell, there is little effect on the nerve fiber _________ to the damage. In the peripheral nervous system, the myelin-forming cells, or ______ cells, survive, and form channels through which new distal fibers grow.

    1. proximal, Schawann
    2. proximal, neuroglial
    3. distal, Schwann
    4. distal, neuroglial

    1. In the central nervous system (CIS), the ______ function in the transfer of materials between capillaries and nervous tissue and the _____ cells serve a phagocytic function in the central nervous system.

    1. oligodendroglia cells, microglia
    2. oligodendroglia cells, ependymal
    3. astrocytes, microglia
    4. astrocytes, ependyml

    The Special Senses


    The eye contains the sensory receptors for vision. The wall of the eye consists of three layers; the inner layer or retina includes cells which respond to visual stimulation. Light rays enter the eye through the cornea and form an image on the retina. The image is reversed from its position in the visual field by the lens. (See attached illustration no. 2).

    1. The pigmented layer of the retina:

    1. helps reduce the reflection of light that enters the eye
    2. contracts in bright light
    3. is responsible for eye color

    1. The aqueous humor is produced by:

    1. the cornea
    2. ciliary processes that project from the ciliary body
    3. the vitreous body

    1. During accommodation for viewing near objects:

    1. the pupils constrict
    2. the ciliary muscles relax
    3. the eyes diverge

    1. Those eyes structures that enables a person to perceive color are:

    1. cones
    2. rods
    3. ossicles

    1. Visual acuity is greatest in the:

    1. fovea centralis
    2. peripheral retina
    3. ciliary body

    1. An abnormal elevation of the intraccular pressure is:

    1. strabismus
    2. astigmatism
    3. glaucoma

    1. The loss of lens elasticity that occurs with aging is called:

    1. presbyopia
    2. myopia
    3. hyperopia

    1. On the ______ surface of the eye, the sclera forms a transparent rounded bulge, the ____ , indicated by letter J on the illustration.

    1. anterior, cornea
    2. anterior, lens
    3. posterior, cornea
    4. posterior, lens

    1. A sheet of tissue, known as the ______ and indicated by letter ______ on the illustration, contains the pigment responsible for the color of the eye.

    1. pupil, L
    2. pupil, M
    3. iris, L
    4. iris, M

    1. The _____ , indicated by letter O on the illustration, contains _______ photoreceptor cells.

    1. fovea centralis, many
    2. fovea centralis, no
    3. optic disc, many
    4. optic disc, no

    1. The _______ layer of the eyeball, indicated by letter Q, is the pigmented _____ of the eye and carries the blood vessels for the eye.

    1. inner, retina
    2. inner, choroid coat
    3. middle, retina
    4. middle, choroid coat

    1. Contraction of extraocular muscle ______ turns the right eye toward the nose. This skeletal muscle of the eye is identified as the______ rectus.

    1. X, lateral
    2. X, medial
    3. Y, lateral
    4. Y, medial

    1. Each motor unit associated with the extrinsic muscles of the eye contains _____ muscle fibers. For these muscles, the myone (muscle fiber) to neuron (nerve fiber) ratio is said to be____, which accounts for their great precision of control and movement.

    1. few, high
    2. few, low
    3. many, high
    4. namy, low

    1. When parallel light rays strike a convex lens, depicted by diagram _____ , when they as represented by diagram _______ .
    2. Contraction of the ciliary muscles _____ the tension on the zonule fibers, which in turn _____ the refractive power of the lens

    1. increases, increases
    2. increases, decrease
    3. decreases, increases
    4. decreases, decreases

    1. When an object is beyond twenty feet away (optical infinity), an image is brought to focus on the retina by ____ of the _____

    1. contraction, extraocular muscles
    2. contraction, ciliary muscle
    3. relaxation, extraocular muscles
    4. relaxation, ciliary muscle

    1. The greatest refraction of light occurs at the surface of structure ______ which is identified as the _____

    1. L, cornea
    2. L, lens
    3. M, cornea
    4. M, lens

    1. Astigmatism is due to a fault in the curvature of structure_____ and requires a lens _____ uniform dioptric strength in all meridians.

    1. L, with
    2. L, without
    3. M, with
    4. M without






    1. In myopia (nearsightedness) the distance from structure L to the retina is _________ then normal and requires a _______ less for correction.

    1. shorter, positive
    2. shorter, negative
    3. longer, positive
    4. longer, negative

    1. The dioptric value of the eye can be changed by structure ____________, identified as the _________ of the eye.

    1. L, lens
    2. L, cornea
    3. M, lens
    4. M, cornea

    1. The most acute vision occurs when light enters the eye along axis _________ and comes to focus on the ______________.

    1. S, fovea centralis
    2. S, optic disc
    3. T, fovea centralis
    4. T, optic disc

    1. The ratio of optic nerve fibers to photorecepters is greatest retinal area _______. This area of the retina is limited primarly to ___________ vision.

    1. R, cone (photopic)
    2. R, rod (scotopic)
    3. T, cone (photopic)
    4. T, rod (scotopic)

    1. The visual field medial to the principal visual axis if focused upon the _______________ retinal field and is represented by area _______________.

    1. nasal, S
    2. nasal, U
    3. temporal, S
    4. temporal, U

    The Special Senses

    The Ear: Hearing and Equilbrium

    Special mechanoreceptors located in the innerear provide information about position and movement of the head. Also located in the inner ear are receptors for detectign sound. These receptors, along with their corresponding neural pathways and areas of the brain, provide for proprioceptive and auditory functions of the body.

    1. The organ of Corti is located on the:

    1. tympanic membrane
    2. basilar membrane
    3. vestibular membrane

    1. The loudness of a sound is determined primarily by which aspect of a sound wave?

    1. amplitude
    2. frequency
    3. pitch

    1. Conductive deafness:

    1. may be caused by impacted cerumen
    2. cannot be corrected by hearing aids
    3. involves damage to the sensory cells of the organ of Corti

    1. When the head is in an upright position:

    1. neurons from the utricle do not transmit impulses to the brain
    2. the gelatinous substance within the utricle exerts force on the hair cells
    3. it is possible to detect a change in head position only if the change exceeds ten degrees

    1. During a sudden rotational acceleration of the head:

    1. the endolymph moves before the semicircular duct moves
    2. the cupula is displaced from its normal position
    3. the afferent pattern of nerve impulses transmitted to the brain does not change

    1. Sound intensity is perceived as _________ and frequently is perceived as _______ of the sound.

    1. amplitude, pitch
    2. amplitude, vibration
    3. loudness, pitch
    4. loudness, vibration

    1. The tympanic membrane, indicated by letter _________, seperates the middle ear from the ___________ ear.

    1. L, outer
    2. L, inner
    3. R, outer
    4. R, inner

    1. The mallas, indicated by letter ___________, is attached to the center of the _____________.

    1. J, tympanic membrane
    2. J, oval window
    3. N, tympanic membrane
    4. N, oval window

    1. The vestibular nerve, indicated by letter _____, is associated with ___________________.

    1. O, equlibrium
    2. O, hearing
    3. P, equilibrium
    4. P, hearing

    1. The bones of the middle ear form a system of levers which transmit sound energy from the larger tympanic membrane to the smaller oval window. In the transmission of sound waves, the amplitude is ___________________ and the pressure is ___________________.

    1. increased, increased
    2. increased, decreased
    3. decreased, increased
    4. decreased, decreased

    1. The tensor typani serves a protective function by __________ when the ear is exposed to high sound levels thereby _______________________.

    1. contracting, increasing
    2. contracting, decreasing
    3. relaxing, increasing
    4. relaxing, decreasing

    1. The _____________ of the membranous labyrinth contains a receptor that signals information about static orientation of the head and the semicircular canals provide information about ______________ the head.

    1. utricle, effects of gravity upon
    2. utricle, rotation of
    3. saccule, effects of gravity upon
    4. saccule, rotation of

    1. The osseous labyrinth contains ______ and includes the scala vestibuli and _____ .

    1. perilymph, scala media
    2. perylymph, scala tympani
    3. endolymph, scala media
    4. endolymph, scala vestibuli

    1. Maximum displacement of the basilar membrane determines sound ______ and the amount of displacement along the membrane determines sound ______.

    1. intensity, pitch
    2. intensity, loudness
    3. frequency, pitch
    4. frequency, loudness

    1. The higher the pitch of a sound, the _____ the frequency and the ______ the wavelength

    1. higher, longer
    2. higher, shorter
    3. lower, longer
    4. lower, shorter

    1. The sensory pathway for the sense of hearing consists of _____ neurons that terminate in the auditory cortex of the _____ lobe.

    1. two, temporal
    2. two, occipital
    3. three, temporal
    4. three, occipital

    1. During changes in head position, the weight of the statoconia of the utricle accentuates the mechanical eggect of movement of the ______, thereby bending and ______ the hair cells.

    1. perilymph, inhibiting
    2. perilymph, exciting
    3. endolymph, inhibiting
    4. endolymph, exciting

    The Special Senses-Smell (Olfaction)

    The Special Senses-Taste (Gustation)

    Receptors located in the epithelium of the nose detect odorous substances. Receptors located in the epithelium of the tongue detect substances dissolved in fluids of the mouth. These receptors, along with their corresponding neural pathways and areas of the brain, provide for olfactory and gustatory function of the body.

    1. The receptor area for the sense of smell consists of _____ ciliated epithelial cells liberally distributed throughout the mucous lining of the ______ cavity

    1. short, mouth
    2. short, nasal
    3. enlongated, mouth
    4. enlongated, nasal

    1. The olfactory tract, a continuation of cranial nerve ______, carries impulses to the olfactory area of the cortex which is located on the inferior surface of the ______ lobe.

    1. I, temporal
    2. I, frontal
    3. II, temporal
    4. II, frontal


    1. Nerve fibers from the taste buds help make up ____ pairs of cranial nerves. The glossopharyngeal nerve is associated with taste from the _____ third of the tongue.

    1. two, anterior
    2. two, posterior
    3. three, anterior
    4. three, posterior

    1. Receptors sensitive to changes in pressure that occur on the surface of the skin are classified as _____ and _____.

    1. exteroceptors, cutaneous receptors
    2. exteroceptors, telereceptors
    3. interoceptors, cutaneous receptors
    4. interoceptors, telereceptors

    1. Adaptation of a sensory receptor involves a _____ response to a ______ stimulus.

    1. decreasing, constant
    2. decreasing, varying
    3. increasing, constant
    4. increasing, varying

    1. In the human body, pressure receptors adapt ______ slowly than touch receptors and ____ slowly than pain receptors.

    1. more, more
    2. more, less
    3. less, more
    4. less, less

    1. When the image of an object upon which the eye "focuses" fall in front of the retina, the eye is said to be:

    1. farsightedness, hyperopia
    2. nearsightedness, myopia
    3. astigmatic (or astigmatism)
    4. color-blind

    1. Accommodation of the eye means the ability to:

    1. see objects in the periphery of the visual field
    2. produce binocular vision
    3. invert the image seen
    4. adjust for different distances

    1. Acqueous humor drains from the anterior chamber of the eye into the:

    1. vitreous humor
    2. hyaloid canal
    3. capsule of Tenon
    4. canal of Schlemm

    1. All of the following parts of the eye are concerned with refraction except the:

    1. vitreous humor
    2. acqueous humor
    3. lens
    4. retina

    1. Which one of the following parts of the eye is concerned primarily with accommodation to distant vision?

    1. cornea
    2. sclera
    3. lens
    4. retina

    1. An individual has willed his eyes to the "eye bank". Which of the following structures most likely will be used to restore vision in another individual?

    1. retina
    2. cornea
    3. choroid
    4. lens

    1. Occassionally, pain impulses originating in the deep structures of the back are "felt" in other locations such as in the scrotum. What type of pain does this illustrate, assuming that the scrotum is free of any disorder?

    1. visceral pain
    2. referred pain
    3. conjoint pain
    4. bearing-down pain

    1. Food eaten by a person with a cold has very little taste because:

    1. bacterial toxins temporarily damage the sensation of taste
    2. taste perceptions are influenced by stimulation of the olfactory nerve endings
    3. congestion in the lacrimal duct irritates the olfactory nerve endings

    1. Sensation of smell is transmitted over which cranial nerve?

    1. olfactory (I)
    2. optic (II)
    3. Acoustic (auditory) (VIII)
    4. Facial (VII)

    1. Pain is caused by stimulation of:

    1. any recepter
    2. naked nerve ending
    3. medulla
    4. thalamus

    1. The neural pathway for taste sensations arising from taste buds located in the posterior one-third of the tongue involves one of the following cranial nerves:

    1. glossopharyngeal
    2. facial
    3. hypoglossal
    4. trigemial
    5. lingual

    1. What kind of receptor reacts to pressure stimuli?

    1. Meissnerís corpuscle
    2. Pacinian corpusle
    3. end organ of Ruffini
    4. free nerve endings

    1. The sensations of taste on various papille of the tongue are listed to which of the following categories:

    1. sour, sweet, and salty
    2. sour, sweet, salty and bitter
    3. an innumerable number of things
    4. pepper, camphor, phenol, and amnoia
    5. cholorform, ether, salty, and bitter

    1. The End Bulb of Krause is a special receptor which is sensitive to:

    1. tempertures which are above normal body temperatures
    2. increased pressure on the skin
    3. temperature which are below normal body temperatures
    4. a light tough on the skin
    5. sharp pain

    1. The special receptors which can detect temperature which are above body temperature are called:

    1. interocepters
    2. Pacinian Corpusles
    3. end organ of Ruffini
    4. free nerve endings
    5. end bulb of Krause

    1. The tactile sense (sense of touch) in the skin is a function of:

    1. Meissnerís corpusles
    2. End bulb of Krause
    3. End organ of Ruffini
    4. Free nerve endings
    5. Pacinian corpusle