DIRECTIONS: For each of the following questions or incomplete statements below select the best or the appropriate answer in each case.


  1. Which endocrine gland has follicles filled with colloid?
    1. adrenal
    2. thyroid
    3. adenohypophysis
    4. parathyroid
    5. pineal
  2. Dietary iodine is essential for synthesis of hormone (s) from the
    1. pineal gland
    2. hypothalamus
    3. anterior pituitary
    4. adrenal glands
    5. none of the above
  3. _______ is secreted by the _______ and stimulates the thyroid gland directly.
    1. thyrotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamus
    2. thyrotropin-releasing hormone, anterior pituitary
    3. thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, hypothalamus
    4. thyroid-stimulating hormone, anterior pituitary
  4. Arise in bloood calcium would _______ calcitonin secretion and _______ parathyroid hormone secretion.
    1. increase; increase
    2. decrease; decrease
    3. increase; decrease
    4. decrease; increase
  5. Myxedema and cretinism are the effects of an
    1. insufficient amount of thyroid hormones
    2. insufficient amount of adrenal cortex hormones
    3. excessive amount of adrenal cortex hormones
    4. excessive amount of growth hormone
    5. insufficient amount of growth hormone
  6. Which endocrine organ is located at the superior end of each kidney?
    1. parathyroid
    2. adenohypophysis
    3. adrenal gland
    4. neurohypophysis
    5. thyroid
  7. Two kinds of epithelial cells, the first kind chief cells and the other kind of cell, oxyphil cells are found in the
    1. pancreas
    2. parathyroid gland
    3. adrenal gland
    4. anterior pituitary
    5. thyroid gland
  8. The _______ of the adrenal cortex produces _______ hormones.
    1. zona glomerulosa, glucocorticoid
    2. zonna fasiculata, mineralocorticoid
    3. zona glumerulosa, mineralocorticoid
    4. zonazona reticularis, epinephrine and norepinephrine
    5. b & d
  9. Aldosterone, one of the mineralocorticoid hormones
    1. has all of the following effects
    2. increases water retention
    3. stimulates sodium reabsorption
    4. stimulates potassium excretion
    5. increases blood pressure
  10. Renin, an enzyme, plays a key role in regulation of _______ secretion.
    1. thyroid hormone
    2. glucocorticoid
    3. parathyroid hormone
    4. aldosterone
    5. calcitonin
  11. Cortisol (or referred to as hydrocortisone ) is the major
    1. gonadotropin
    2. mineralocorticoid
    3. adrenal medullary hormone
    4. androgen
    5. glucocorticoid, one of the steroid hormones
  12. Androgens and/or estrogens ate secreted by all of the following except
    1. testis
    2. ovary
    3. adrenal cortex
    4. adrenal medulla
  13. Which of the following is not a steroid or steroid-like hormone?
    1. mineralocorticoids
    2. androgens
    3. glucocortidoids
    4. thyroid hormones
    5. active vitamin D
  14. Hormones secreted by the _______ mimic the sympathetic nervous system.
    1. adrenal medulla
    2. adrenal cortex
    3. pineal
    4. parathyroids
    5. thyroid
  15. The major responsible for the fight-or-flight response is
    1. thyroxine
    2. cortisol
    3. epinephrine
    4. aldosterone
    5. insulin
  16. The male hormones are known as _______ and are structurally classified as ________ hormones.
    1. gonadotropins, peptide/protein
    2. androgens, steroid
    3. estrogens, peptide/protein
    4. androgens, peptide/protein
    5. gonadotropins, steroids
  17. The major role of the endocrine system to achieve homeostasis within the human body is as
    1. effector organs
    2. communication pathways and coordination
    3. integration centers
    4. sensory receptors
    5. requirements for glucose and oxygen
  18. Which of the following hormone pairs have antagonistic actions?
    1. insulin/glucagon
    2. testosterone/estrogen
    3. aldosterone/cortisol
    4. parathyroid hormone/calcitonin
    5. a & d
  19. Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?
    1. regulation of pH
    2. regulation of osmolarity
    3. regulation of body temperature
    4. regulation of fluid volume
    5. regulation of RBC production
  20. A renal papilla is the tip of a
    1. minor calyx
    2. renal column
    3. major calyx
    4. renal pyramid
    5. renal sinus
  21. Urine is moved from the kidney to the bladder by
    1. ciliary movement
    2. gravity
    3. peristaltic contractions
    4. mass movements
    5. b & c
  22. The bladder’s mucosa is able to stretch during urine accumulation due to
    1. elastic connective tissue
    2. transitional epithelium
    3. smooth muscle tissue
    4. peritoneal membrane
    5. loose areolar tissue
  23. Which of the following correctly describes the path of urine through the urinary system?
    1. minor calyxà major calyxà renal sinusà urethraà bladderà ureter
    2. major calyxà minor calyxà renal sinusà urethraà bladderà ureter
    3. ureterà major calyxà minor calyxà bladderà renal pelvisà ureter
    4. minor calyxà major calyxà renal pelvisà ureterà bladderà urethra
    5. major calyxà minor calyxà renal pelvisà ureter
  24. The functional unit of the kidney is the
    1. renal pyramid
    2. nephron
    3. collecting duct
    4. renal cortex
    5. loop of Henle
  25. In an anatomically working nephron, the _______ is found in the medulla while the other nephron components are in the cortex.
    1. glomerular capsule
    2. distal convoluted tubule
    3. loop of Henle
    4. glomerulus
    5. proximal convoluted tubule
  26. The juxtaglomerular apparaturs is composed of cells from the
    1. afferent arteriole and efferentarteriole
    2. afferent arteriole and distal convoluted tubule
    3. efferent arteriole and proximal convoluted tubule
    4. glomerulus and afferent arteriole
    5. glomerulus and distal convoluted tubule
  27. The glomerular capillaries are involved in _______ while the peritubular capillaries are involved in _______.
    1. glomerular filtration, tubular secretion
    2. tubular secretion, glomerular filtration, reabsorption
    3. glomerular filtration, reabsorption, tubular secretion
    4. reabsorption, tubular secretion
    5. tubular secretion, reabsorption
  28. Which of the following correctly describes the route of blood to a glomerulus?
    1. renal arteryà arcuate arteryà interlobar arteryà efferent arterioleà glomerulus
    2. renal arteryà interlobar arteryà arcuate arteryà interlobular arteryà afferent arterioleà glomerulus
    3. renal arteryà arcuate arteryà interlobular arteryà efferent arterioleà glomerulus
    4. renal arteryà interlobular arteryà arcuate arteryà interlobar arteryà afferent arterioleà glomerulus
  29. Filtrate in the glomerular capsule differs from plasma in the glomerulus in the filtrate normally
    1. contains less glucose
    2. contains less ions
    3. contains more waste products
    4. contains no proteins
    5. contains less water
  30. The juxtaglomerular apparatus directly regulates the rate of
    1. all of the following
    2. tubular secretion
    3. tubular reabsorption
    4. glomerular filtration
  31. Which of the following events would NOT increase glomerular filtration rate?
    1. increased sympathetic stimulation to the afferent arterioles
    2. increased renin secretation
    3. dilation of afferent arterioles
    4. constriction of efferent arterioles
    5. increased systemic blood pressure, if uncompensated
  32. In the kidney, movement of substances from the filtrate into the blood capillary is termed
    1. tubular reabsorption
    2. autoregulation
    3. glomerular filtration
    4. micturition
    5. tubular secretion
  33. The majority of sodium and water reabsorption occurs in the
    1. distal convoluted tubule
    2. collecting duct
    3. loop of Henle
    4. proximal convoluted tubule
    5. a & b
  34. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by
    1. difussion
    2. osmosis
    3. active transport
    4. dialysis
  35. Urea is
    1. filtered
    2. actively reabsorbed
    3. passively reabsorbed
    4. diuresis
    5. a & c
  36. Substances nay be moved from the blood into the tubular filtrate by
    1. tubular secretion
    2. glomerular filtration
    3. tubular reabsorption
    4. a & b
    5. b & c
  37. The artificial kidney works on the principle of
    1. tubular secretion
    2. dialysis
    3. osmosis
    4. diffusion
    5. active transport
  38. The male gonad is the _______, the male gamete is the ________.
    1. scrotum, sperm
    2. sperm, testis
    3. scrotum, testis
    4. testis, sperm
    5. testis, scrotum
  39. Sperm cells are produced in the
    1. seminiferous tubules
    2. seminal vesicles
    3. interstitial cells
    4. tunica albuginea
    5. rete testis
  40. Which of the following correctly describes the path a sperm cell follows to exit the body?
    1. rete testis-à efferent ductulesà head of epididymisà tail of epididymisà ejaculatory ductà ductus deferensà urethra
    2. efferent ductulesà rete testisà tail of epididymisà head of epididymisà ejaculatory ductà ductus deferensà urethra
    3. rete testisà efferent ductulesà head of epididymisà tail of epididymisà ductus deferensà ejaculatory ductà urethra
    4. rete testisà efferent ductulesà tail of epididymisà head of epididymisà seminal vesiclesà ejaculatory ductà ductus deferensà urethra
  41. Which of the structure add a milky alkaline secretion to semen that neutralizes acidity in the female reproductive tract?
    1. seminal vesicles
    2. seminiferous tubules
    3. prostate gland
    4. interstitial cells
    5. bulbourethral glands
  42. Which of the following cells undergoes meiosis?
    1. sertoli cells
    2. spermatids
    3. spermatogonia
    4. spermatozoa
    5. primary spermatocytes
  43. The mature sperm cell has a (n) _______ that contains enzymes important for penetrating the ovum in fertilization.
    1. head
    2. tail
    3. acrosome
    4. midpiece
    5. flagellum
  44. In the male, luteinizing hormone is secreted by the _______ and stimulates the _______.
    1. hypothalamus, interstitial cells
    2. hypothalamus, sertoli cells
    3. anterior pituitary, interstitial cells
    4. anterior pituitary, sertoli cells
  45. A _______ contains an oocyte, several layers of granulosa cells, and a fluid-filled cavity, the antrum.
    1. corpus albicans
    2. primary follicle
    3. corpus luteum
    4. Graafian follicle
    5. Secondary follicle
  46. Fimbriae are finger-like projections of the
    1. ovary
    2. uterus
    3. vagina
    4. uterine tubes
  47. The deepest layer of the uterine wall, consisting of columnar epithelium and highly cellular connective tissue is the
    1. medulla
    2. endometrium
    3. cortex
    4. perimetrium
    5. myometrium
  48. Outer, elongated folds of skin which are the female homologue of the scrotum are the
    1. vestibule
    2. clitoris
    3. labia majora
    4. labia minora
    5. mons pubis
  49. Oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis in which of the following ways?
    1. all of the following ways
    2. Undifferentiated female germ cells cannot undergo mitosis after birth.
    3. The cells formed by meiosis in females are not equal in size as in males.
    4. Oogenesis begins before puberty; spermatogenesis after puberty.
    5. Meiosis in oogenesis is not completed until after sperm penetration in spermatogenesis.
  50. The primary hormonal event triggering ovulation is
    1. high levels of estrogen
    2. low levels of GnRH
    3. a surge in LH
    4. a surge in FSH
    5. high levels of progesterone
  51. The corpus luteum secretes large amounts of _______ and smaller amounts of _______.
    1. FSH, estrogens
    2. Progesterone, estrogens
    3. LH, FSH
    4. Inhibin, progesterone
    5. Estrogens, inhibin
  52. Which of the following events do NOT occur during the follicular phase of the ovary?
    1. the proliferative phase of the uterus
    2. development of the corpus luteum
    3. progesterone levels remain low
    4. estrogen levels climb near the end of the phase
    5. FSH levels decline
  53. The secretory phase of the uterine cycle is due primarily to the direct influence of
    1. progesterone
    2. FSH
    3. LH
    4. Estrogen
    5. Inhibin
  54. What is the PMS?
    1. campus clock still out of sync
    2. its time to spring one hour forward
    3. bizarre bazaar festival preparation begins
    4. an array of psychological and physical symptoms that may appear during a portion of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and disappear with the onset of menstruation
    5. hectic lifestyles and repeated lies diminish and interfere with people’s self-sesteem
  55. Upon ovulation, the egg leaves the follicle and enters the;
    1. ovary
    2. abdominal cavity
    3. oviduct
    4. uterus
    5. vagina
  56. Fertilization normally occurs about one-third of the way down in which of the following?
    1. oviduct of the uterine tube
    2. uterus
    3. cervix
    4. vagina
    5. abdominal cavity
  57. Implantation of the fertilized egg occurs 7 to 8 days following fertilization in the:
    1. oviducts
    2. uterine wall
    3. cervix
    4. vagina
    5. finbriae
  58. The placenta has the shape of a "flat cake" and provides:
    1. delivers nutrients to the embryo
    2. exchanges gases between mother and embryo
    3. remove wastes from embryo
    4. secretes hormones
    5. all of the above
  59. The most popular method of contraception used to avoid unwanted pregnancies is
    1. condom
    2. diaphragm
    3. birth control ( oral ) pill
    4. contraceptive sponges
    5. intrauterine device
  60. A vasectomy in the human male
    1. produces impotence
    2. affects normal ejaculation
    3. prevents testosterone synthesis
    4. is a form of surgical sterilization
    5. produces spermatozoa