General Zoology - Biol 1413

Examination III


1. The study of the evolutionary history of an animal best defines

a. systematics.

b. taxonomy.

c. phylogeny.

d. adaptation.

e. numerical taxonomy.

2. In the cladistics approach to taxonomy, the characteristics not shared by organisms in the study group and the outgroup are termed

a. primitive.

b. advanced.

c. synamorphies.

d. diamorphies.

e. quantitative.

3. The fossil records shows that reptiles originated from the phylogenetic tree of vertebrates before birds or mammals. Consequently reptiles would be considered -------- with respect to those two groups.

a. primitive

b. lower

c. higher

d. advanced

e. generalized

4. All vertebrates possess a vertebral column. Consequently, a vertebral column would be considered -------- for the vertebrates.

a. primitive

b. advanced

c. generalized

d. lower

e. higher

5. The kingdom of life which is composed of procaryotic cells is the

a. monera.

b. protista.

c. fungi.

d. plants.

e. animals.

6. Within the kingdom, the highest taxonomic category which roughly can be considered a body plan is the

a. order.

b. class.

c. genera.

d. family.

e. phylum.

7. In the subkingdom metazoa, which two branches contains organisms that never pass the tissue grade of organization?

a. mesozoa and radiata.

b. radiata and bilateria.

c. mesozoa and parazoa.

d. parazoa and radiata.

e. parazoa and bilateria.

8. Organisms which are unicellular and live either singly or in colonies best define the

a. porifera.

b. radiata.

c. bilateria.

d. protozoa.

e. mesozoa.

9. Which of the following would you not expect a marine protozoa to have?

a. nucleus.

b. cytostome.

c. contractile vacuole.

d. cell membrane.

e. food vacuole.

10. The subphylum sarcodina move by means of

a. pseudopods.

b. flagella.

c. cilia.

d. contractile vacuoles.

e. cirri.

11. A major feature of the phylum apiocomplexa is that

a. they move by flagella.

b. they move by cilia.

c. all are endoparasitic.

d. all are free living (non-parasitic).

e. asexual reproduction only occurs.

12. In humans, the malarial sporozoites are injected by the mosquito into the human. Here they enter the liver cells, undergo schizogony and form

a. merozoites.

b. gametes.

c. macrogametocytes.

d. microgametocytes.

e. Ookinetes.

13. In the ciliates, cilia sometimes fuse to form stiffened tufts that may be used for locomotion. These tufts are termed

a. undulating membranes.

b. cirri.

c. trichocysts.

d. tentacles.

e. pellicles.

14. Which of the following is not a phylum of protozoa?

a. labyrinthomorpha

b. myxozoa

c. microspora.

d. ascetospora.

e. mesozoa.

15. The mastigophoran protozoa probably arose from

a. ciliophora.

b. a symbiotic union of bacteria.

c. sarcodina.

d. radiolarians.

e. apiocomplexa.

16. Which statement best describes the phylum mesozoa.

a. They are multinucleated ciliates.

b. They are parasites with fully formed organs.

c. They are minute parasites that reach only the tissue grade.

d. They are free living organisms that only reach the tissue grade.

e. They are closely related to the porifera.

17. The most distinguishing feature of the phylum porifera is the presence of

a. an endoskeleton.

b. pores.

c. an covering epithelium.

d. wandering amoeboid cells.

e. an almost exclusively marine distribution.

18. The larva of the porifera

a. consists of three cell layers.

b. has an internal layer of flagellated cells.

c. contains a middle layer made up of a thick mesoglea.

d. develops from a bud.

e. is free swimming.

19. The water which is drawn into a sponge is expelled via the

a. ostia.

b. osculum.

c. amoebocytes.

d. spicules.

e. mesoglea.

20. The sponge body plan which is characterized by the possession of flagellate chambers is the

a. asconoid.

b. syconoid.

c. leuconoid.

d. scycophant.

e. psychopath.

21. The collared flagellated cells of the sponges are termed

a. pinacocytes.

b. myocytes.

c. amoebocytes.

d. choanocytes.

e. sclerocytes.

22. The skeletal spicules of the commercial bath sponges are composed of

a. calcium carbonate.

b. silicate.

c. boron.

d. spongin.

e. hydroxy apatite.

23. The cell which starts food digestion in sponges is the

a. amoebocyte.

b. choanocyte.

c. pinacocyte.

d. myocyte.

e. podocyte.

24. A major asexual method of reproduction that occurs in freshwater sponge is

a. formation of ova.

b. formation of sperm.

c. binary fission.

d. schizogony.

e. gemmules.

25. The majority of species of sponges belong to the class

a. Calcispongiae.

b. Hyalospongiae.

c. Demospongiae.

d. Sclerospongiae.

26. Sponges probably arose from

a. flatworms.

b. radiate larvae.

c. ciliated protozoan.

d. colonial flagellate protozoan.

e. mesozoa.

27. The distinguishing feature of the phylum cnidaria is the possession of

a. radial symmetry.

b. cnidocytes.

c. mesoglea.

d. nerve cells.

e. biradial symmetry.

28. The cnidarian body plan which is free swimming is the

a. medusa.

b. polyp.

c. gastrodermis.

d. cnidocil.

e. hydroid.

29. A unique feature of the nerve net of the cnidarians is

a. a lack of myelin.

b. synapses with musculoepithelial cells.

c. symmetrical synapses.

d. presence of a central nervous system.

e. possession of a nerve ring.

30. In the class hydrozoa, the individual feeding zooids of the polyp stage are termed

a. hydrocauli.

b. hydranths.

c. gonangia.

d. perisarc.

e. coenosarc.

31. This class of cnidaria lacks a velum and possess sense organs termed rhopalia. It is the

a. hydrozoa.

b. cuboza.

c. anthozoa.

d. zoantharia.

e. scyphozoa.

32. The soft corals are found in the

a. hydrozoa.

b. cuboza.

c. anthozoa.

d. zoantharia.

e. scyphozoa.

33. The diagnostic feature of the phylum ctenophora is the presence of

a. nematocysts.

b. cnidocils.

c. bioluminescence.

d. comb like cilia plates used for locomotion.

e. trailing tentacles which are used for food gathering.

34. Radiate animals are thought to have originated from a

a. trochophore larva.

b. veligar larva.

c. flatworm.

d. planula larva.

e. protostome.

35. Which of the following is not true of the protostome animals?

a. The anus forms from the blastopore.

b. The mouth forms from the first embryological opening.

c. Cleavage is spiral.

d. Development is determinate.

e. Coelom formation is schizocoelous.

36. In the acoelomate animals, the space between the digestive tract and the body wall is filled with

a. organs.

b. fluid.

c. muscle.

d. parenchyma cells.

e. fat.

37. A major feature of the platyhelminthes is the possession of a

a. single opening digestive tract.

b. two opening digestive tract.

c. closed circulatory system.

d. open circulatory system.

e. single ventral nerve cord.

38. The Dugesia belong to the class

a. trematoda.

b. cestoda.

c. turbellaria.

d. monogena.

e. gastropoda.

39. The egg of the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinesis, contains a

a. sporocyst.

b. redia.

c. miricidium.

d. cecaria.

e. metaceria.

40. The great bulk of the body of a cestode is composed of

a. digestive system.

b. respiratory organs.

c. reproductive organs.

d. excretory organs.

e. parenchyma tissue.

41. The ribbon worms belong to the phylum.

a. platyhelminthes.

b. rhynchocoela.

c. gnathostomulida.

d. rotifera.

e. priapulida.

42. Flatworms appear to have arisen from a

a. sponge larva.

b. trochophore larva.

c. planula like larva.

d. veligar larva.

e. volvox like flagellate.

43. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the pseudocoelomate animals?

a. possession of a body cavity

b. possession of a complete digestive tract.

c. presence of a non-living cuticle

d. eutely

e. lack parasitic forms

44. The phylum which is characterized by the possession of a ciliated feeding crown that appears like a rotating wheel is the

a. kinorhyncha.

b. gastrotricha.

c. nematoda.

d. rotifera.

e. nematamorpha.

45. The phylum of pseudocoelomates that contains the largest number of species is the

a. rotifer.

b. entoprocta.

c. nematomorpha.

d. nematoda.

e. acanthocephala.

46. The most probably ancestor for the pseudocoelomate phyla would be a

a. planula larva.

b. adult radiate animal.

c. primitive flatworm.

d. trochophore larva.

e. nematode.

47. The key feature that defines a true coelom is

a. a space between the body wall and the digestive tract.

b. fluid in the body cavity.

c. the presence of parenchyma tissue.

d. complete mesodermal lining of the cavity.

e. septal partitions of the body cavity.

48. In mollusks, the body mass is termed the

a. foot.

b. visceral hump.

c. head.

d. mantle.

e. radula.

49. Which of the following is not a function of the mantle?

a. secretion of the shell

b. housing of the gills

c. protection of the foot

d. jet propulsion

e. secretion of toxins

50. The tentacles of the squids are derived from the

a. mantle.

b. foot.

c. radula.

d. gills.

e. mouth.

51. The ribbon like feeding structure of the mollusks is known as the

a. radula.

b. gills.

c. shell.

d. proboscis.

e. oral groove.

52. The outer layer of the molluscan shell is termed the

a. nacreous layer.

b. mother of pearl.

c. prismatic layer.

d. periostracum.

e. caudeofovata.

53. The circulatory of mollusks

a. does not contain a heart.

b. lacks blood vessels.

c. is closed (except for cephalopods).

d. is open (except for cephalopods).

e. lacks blood sinuses.

54. The chitons, which are characteristic by possession of 8 articulating plates, belong to the class

a. caudofoveata.

b. monoplacophora.

c. polydplacophora.

d. scaphopoda.

e. gastropoda.

55. The class scaphopoda contains the

a. oysters.

b. snails.

c. nautiloids.

d. tusk shells.

e. chitons.

56. The overall effect of torsion in the gastropods is to

a. coil the animal so that it fits into the shell.

b. cause the loss of the gill, kidney, and heart auricle from the right side of the animal.

c. promote equal growth of the right and left muscles which attach to the shell.

d. cause a 180 degree shift between the visceral organs and the mantle cavity.

e. reverse the head to the back of the animal.

57. The crystalline style of the bivalves functions to

a. produce digestive enzymes.

b. excrete ammonia.

c. focus light into the eyes.

d. smooth the inner surface of the shell.

e. attract potential sexual partners.

58. A major feature that suggest that a common ancestor is shared by both the mollusks and annelids is the presence of

a. deuterostome development.

b. a trochophore larva.

c. segmentation in both groups.

d. an open circulatory system in both groups.

e. chitin in the cuticle of both groups.

59. A major distinguish feature of the annelida is the presence of

a. protostome development.

b. radial cleavage.

c. segmentation (metamerism).

d. an open circulatory system.

e. a true coelom.

60. Characteristically, the annelid body has

a. a chitinous exoskeleton.

b. longitudinal muscles only in the body wall.

c. a pair of coelomic cavities in each segment.

d. reinforcing plates of cartilage in the body wall.

e. a dorsal nerve cord.

61. Which of the following is not true of the class polychaeta?

a. it contains the most species

b. the most primitive annelids are found there

c. they possess a well formed clitellum

d. they possess parapodia

e. some have jaws

62. It would appear that the leeches arose from the

a. polychaetes.

b. oligochaetes.

c. flatworm ancestor.

d. planula larva.

e. radiate ancestor.

63. Which of the following is not a common feature of all arthropods?

a. segmented body

b. planula larva.

c. jointed appendages.

d. cuticular exoskeleton.

e. separate sexes.

64. The basic body pattern of the arthropods is a series of similar

a. digestive glands.

b. somites each with a single appendage.

c. somites each with two appendages.

d. somites with four appendages.

e. somites with two nephridia.

65. Which of the following is not considered to be a major factor contributing to the success of the arthropods?

a. the exoskeleton

b. jointed appendages

c. tracheal breathing

d. metamorphosis

e. an open circulatory system

66. A major feature of the subphylum trilobita was

a. tracheal breathing.

b. a closed circulation.

c. a dorsal nerve cord.

d. biramous appendages.

e. absence of an exoskeleton.

67. Which of the following organisms is not found in the subphylum chelicerata?

a. horseshoe crabs

b. spiders

c. crabs

d. scorpions

e. ticks

68. In the chelicerates, the first pair of appendages are modified to form

a. pedipalps.

b. chelicerae.

c. walking legs.

d. antennae.

e. mandibles.

69. In the subphylum crustacea, we find all of the following features except

a. a cephalothorax.

b. biramous appendages.

c. two pairs of antennae.

d. two pairs of mandibles.

e. two pairs of antennules.

70. The first three pairs of thorax appendages on the crayfish are the

a. maxillipeds.

b. chilipeds.

c. swimmerets.

d. uropods.

e. antennae.

71. A key feature of the subphylum uniramia is the possess of

a. unbranched appendages.

b. biting mouth parts.

c. biramous appendages.

d. two antennules.

e. compound eyes.

72. The insects characteristically possess

a. 8 legs.

b. 6 legs.

c. 4 legs.

d. 4 pairs of wings.

e. one pair of wings.

73. Excretion in the insects is by means of

a. protonephridia.

b. metaneprhidia.

c. mesonephridia.

d. green glands.

e. malpighian tubules.

74. The type of insect development characterized by nymphs that resemble wingless adults is

a. holometabolous.

b. hemimetabolous.

c. epimorphosis.

d. complete metamorphosis.

e. apteromorphosis.

75. The most probably ancestor of the arthropods was a (an)

a. unsegmented protostome.

b. segmented protostome.

c. mollusk.

d. flatworm.

e. pseudocoelomate.

76. The beardworms, which have been found in giant form around deep sea volcanic vents, belong to the phylum

a. sipuncula.

b. echiura.

c. pogonophora.

d. onychoporha.

e. tardigrada.

77. Which of the following phyla is considered to be intermediate between the annelids and the arthropods?

a. entoprocta.

b. ectoprocta.

c. pogonophora.

d. onychophora.

e. echiura.

78. The lophophore can best be described as a (an)

a. rasping feeding organ.

b. eversible proboscis used for feeding and respiration.

c. a ring of ciliated tentacles that encloses the mouth and anus.

d. a ring of ciliated tentacles that encloses the mouth but not the anus.

e. a sucking device.

79. Which of the following terms would not be associated with the phylum ectoprocta?

a. zoecium

b. cystide

c. polypide

d. lophophore

e. cryptobiosis

80. A major feature that indicates that all of the lophophorates had a common ancestor is the fact that

a. coelom formation is variable.

b. tentacles are used for feeding.

c. tentacles are used for respiration.

d. the lophophore is homologous for all of the phyla.

e. brachiopods have shells.

ESSAY QUESTION (20 points)

Construct a phylogenetic tree or diagram of all of the animal phyla, from the protozoa through the protostomes, showing their probably phylogenetic relationships.